Shape Dynamics in 2+1 Dimensions


Shape Dynamics is a formulation of General Relativity where refoliation invariance is traded for local spatial conformal invariance. In this paper we explicitly construct Shape Dynamics for a torus universe in 2+1 dimensions through a linking gauge theory that ensures dynamical equivalence with General Relativity. The Hamiltonian we obtain is formally a reduced phase space Hamiltonian. The construction of the Shape Dynamics Hamiltonian on higher genus surfaces is not explicitly possible, but we give an explicit expansion of the Shape Dynamics Hamiltonian for large CMC volume. The fact that all local constraints are linear in momenta allows us to quantize these explicitly, and the quantization problem for Shape Dynamics turns out to be equivalent to reduced phase space quantization. We consider the large CMC-volume asymptotics of conformal transformations of the wave function. We then use the similarity of Shape Dynamics on the 2-torus with the explicitly constructible strong gravity (BKL) Shape Dynamics Hamiltonian in higher dimensions to suggest a quantization strategy for Shape Dynamics.

Gen. Rel. Grav. 44 (2012) 1615-1636


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